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Division II: The Die Varieties
rotated hub doublingBy Alan Herbert
March 22, 2010
rotated hub doubling



Die varieties may be unique to a given die, but will repeat for the full life of the die unless a further change occurs. Anything that happens to the die will affect the appearance of the struck coin. This includes all the steps of the die making:

• Cutting a die blank from a tool steel bar.
• Making the design.
• Transferring it to a model.
• Transferring it to the master die or hub.
• The hubbing process of making the die.
• Punching in the mintmark.
• Heat treating of the die.

The completed dies are also subject to damage in numerous forms, plus wear and tear during the striking process and repair work done with abrasives. All of these factors can affect how the struck coin looks.

In all cases in this section where a master die, or master hub is affected by the class, the class will affect all the working hubs and all working dies descending from it.

Identification as being on a master die or hub depends on it being traced to two or more of the working hubs descended from the same master tools.

II-A-1 Overdate (IE), Rarity Level: 1-7 . .....Values: $1 up
II-A-2 Doubled Date (IE), Rarity Level: 1-7 ......Values: $1 up
II-A-3 Small Date (IE), Rarity Level: 2-5 . .....Values: $1 up
II-A-4 Large Date (IE), Rarity Level: 2-5 .....Values: $1 up
II-A-5 Small Over Large Date (IE), Rarity Level: 4-6 . .....Values: $15 up
II-A-6 Large Over Small Date (IE), Rarity Level: 3-5 ......Values: $10 up
II-A-7 Blundered Date (E), Rarity Level: 6-7 . .....Values: $50 up
II-A-8 Corrected Blundered Date (IE), Rarity Level: 3-5. ......Values: $5 up
II-A-9 Wrong Font Date Digit (IE), Rarity Level: 5-6 . .....Values: Minimal
II-A-10 Worn, Broken or Damaged Punch (IWE), Rarity Level: 5-6 .....Values: $5 up
II-A-11 Expedient Punch (IWE), Rarity Level: 5-6 .....Values: $10 up
II-A-12 Blundered Digit (E), Rarity Level: 4-5 ......Values: $50 up
II-A-13 Corrected Blundered Digit (IE), Rarity Level: 3-6 .......Values: $10 up
II-A-14 Doubled Digit (IWE), Rarity Level: 2-6 . .......Values: $2 up
II-A-15 Wrong Style or Font Letter or Digit (IE), Rarity Level: 3-5. .....Values: Minimal
II-A-16 One Style or Font Over Another (IE), Rarity Level: 4-6 . .....Values: $10 up
II-A-17 Letter Over Digit (E), Rarity Level: 6-7 . ......Values: $25 up
II-A-18 Digit Over Letter (E), Rarity Level: 6-7 . .....Values: $25 up
II-A-19 Omitted Letter or Digit (IWE), Rarity Level: 4-6. ......Values: $5 up
II-A-20 Blundered Letter (E), Rarity Level: 6-7 . .....Values: $50 up
II-A-21 Corrected Blundered Letter (IE), Rarity Level: 1-3. ......Values: $10 up
II-A-22 Doubled Letter (IWE), Rarity Level: 2-6. ......Values: $2 up
II-A-23 Blundered Design Element (IE), Rarity Level: 6-7 ......Values: $50 up
II-A-24 Corrected Blundered Design Element (IE), Rarity Level: 3-5 .....Values: $10 up
II-A-25 Large Over Small Design Element (IE), Rarity Level: 4-6 ......Values: $2 up
II-A-26 Omitted Design Element (IWE), Rarity Level: 5-7 .....Values: $10 up
II-A-27 Doubled Design Element (IWE), Rarity Level: 2-6. .....Values: $2 up
II-A-28 One Design Element Over Another (IE), Rarity Level: 3-6 . .....Values: $5 up
II-A-29 Reducing Lathe Doubling (WE), Rarity Level: 6-7. .....Values: $50 up
II-A-30 Extra Design Element (IE), Rarity Level: 3-5 . .....Values: $10 up
II-A-31 Modifi ed Design (IWE), Rarity Level: 1-5 ......Values: No Value up
II-A-32 Normal Design (I), Rarity Level: 1......Values: No Extra Value
II-A-33 Design Mistake (IE), Rarity Level: 2-6. .....Values: $1 up
II-A-34 Defective Die Design (IWE), Rarity Level: 1. .....Values: No Value
II-A-35 Pattern (I), Rarity Level: 6-7 ......Values: $100 up
II-A-36 Trial Design (I), Rarity Level: 5-7 .....Values: $100 up
II-A-37 Omitted Designer's Initial (IWE), Rarity Level: 3-7 .....Values: $1 up
II-A-38 Layout Mark (IE), Rarity Level: 5-7 ......Values: Minimal
II-A-39 Abnormal Reeding (IWE), Rarity Level: 2-5. .....Values: $1 up
II-A-40 Modifi ed Die or Hub (IWE), Rarity Level: 1-5 ......Values: No Value up
II-A-41 Numbered Die (I), Rarity Level: 3-5 ......Values: $5 up
II-A-42 Plugged Die (IW), Rarity Level: 5-6 . .....Values: Minimal
II-A-43 Cancelled Die (IE), Rarity Level: 3-6 .......Values: No Value up
II-A-44 Hardness Test Marked Die (IE), Rarity Level: 7 ......Values: $100 up
II-A-45 Coin Simulation (IE), Rarity Level: 6-7 ......Values: $100 up, but may be illegal to own
II-A-46 Punching Mistake (IE), Rarity Level: 2-6. .....Values: $1 up
II-A-47 Small Over Large Design (IE), Rarity Level: 4-6 ......Values: $5 up
II-A-48 Doubled Punch (IE), Rarity Level: 5-7. .....Values: $5 up
II-A-49 Mint Display Sample (I) Rarity Level: 7......Values not established
II-A-50 Center Dot, Stud or Circle (IE) Rarity Level: 7, much more common on early cents. .Values not established



Hub Doubling Varieties (II-B)

This section includes eight classes of hub doubling. Each class is from a different cause, described by the title of the class. At the latest count over 2,500 doubled dies have been reported in the U.S. coinage, the most famous being examples of the 1955, 1969-S and 1972 cent dies.

II-B-I Rotated Hub Doubling (WE), Rarity Level: 3-6. .....Values: $1 up
II-B-II Distorted Hub Doubling (WE), Rarity Level: 3-6 .......Values: $1 up
II-B-III Design Hub Doubling (IWE), Rarity Level: 3-6. .....Values: $1 up to five figure amounts
II-B-IV Offset Hub Doubling (WE), Rarity Level: 4-6 . ......Values: $15 up
II-B-V Pivoted Hub Doubling (WE), Rarity Level: 3-6 . .....Values: $10 up
II-B-VI Distended Hub Doubling (WE), Rarity Level: 2-5. ......Values: $1 up
II-B-VII Modifi ed Hub Doubling (IWE), Rarity Level: 2-5 ......Values: $1 up
II-B-VIII Tilted Hub Doubling (WE), Rarity Level: 4-6 ......Values: $5 up



Mintmark Varieties (II-C)

Mintmarks are punched into U.S. coin dies by hand (Up to 1985 for proof coins, to 1990 for cents and nickels and 1991 for other denominations). Variations resulting from mistakes in the punching are listed in this section. Unless exceptionally mispunched, values are usually estimated at 150 percent of numismatic value. Slightly tilted or displaced mintmarks have no value.

II-C-1 Doubled Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 2-6 ......Values: 50 cents up
II-C-2 Separated Doubled Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 5-6. ......Values: $15 up
II-C-3 Over Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 3-6 . . .....Values: $2 up
II-C-4 Tripled Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 3-5 .....Values: 50 up
II-C-5 Quadrupled Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 4-6 . .....Values: $1 up
II-C-6 Small Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 2-5 . .....Values: No Extra Value up
II-C-7 Large Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 2-5 . ......Values: No Extra Value up
II-C-8 Large Over Small Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 2-5 .......Values: $2 up
II-C-9 Small Over Large Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 3-6 .......Values: $5 up
II-C-10 Broken Mintmark Punch (W), Rarity Level: 5-6 .....Values: $5 up
II-C-11 Omitted Mintmark (IWE), Rarity Level: 4-7 .....Values: $125 up
II-C-12 Tilted Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 5-7 ......Values: $5 up
II-C-13 Blundered Mintmark (E), Rarity Level: 4-6 . ......Values: $5 up



Rotated Hub Doubling Hub Break
Double Triple


II-C-14 Corrected Horizontal Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 4-6 ......Values: $5 up
II-C-15 Corrected Upside Down Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 4-6 ......Values: $5 up
II-C-16 Displaced Mintmark (IE), Rarity Level: 4-6 ......Values: $5 to $10
II-C-17 Modifi ed Mintmark (IWE), Rarity Level: 1-4 . .....Values: No Extra Value up
II-C-18 Normal Mintmark (I), Rarity Level: 1. .....Values: No Extra Value
II-C-19 Doubled Mintmark Punch (I), Rarity Level: 6-7 . ......Values: No Extra Value up
II-C-20 Upside Down Mintmark (E) Rarity Level 6-7......Values: $5 up
II-C-21 Horizontal Mintmark (E) Rarity Level 6-7 .....Values: $5 up
II-C-22 Wrong Mintmark (E) Rarity Level 6-7 ......Values $15 up

(Example has a D mintmark in the date, but was used at Philadelphia.)



Die, Collar and Hub Cracks (II-D)

Cracks in the surface of the die allow coin metal to be forced into the crack during the strike, resulting in raised irregular lines of coin metal above the normal surface of the coin. These are one of the commonest forms of die damage and wear, making them easily collectible.

Collar cracks and hub cracks are added to this section because the causes and effects are similar or closely associated.

Die cracks, collar cracks and hub cracks are the result of wear and tear on the tools, with intentional use assumed for all classes.

II-D-1 Die Crack (W), Rarity Level: 1-3 ......Values: 10 to $1, $25 up on a proof coin with a rarity level of 6-7
II-D-2 Multiple Die Cracks (W), Rarity Level: 1-3 . ......Values: 25 cents to $2
II-D-3 Head-To-Rim Die Crack (Lincoln Cent) (W), Rarity Level: 2-6 .... . Values: 25 to $10 for multiple die cracks
II-D-4 Split Die (W), Rarity Level: 5-6. . .....Values: $10 up
II-D-5 Rim-To-Rim Die Crack (W), Rarity Level: 2-5. .....Values: $1 up
II-D-6 Collar Crack (W), Rarity Level: 4-6. .....Values: $10 up
II-D-7 Hub Crack (W), Rarity Level: 3-5 .......Values: $1-$2



Die Cracks

Small die break II-E-2 Clogged letter II-E-1
Major die break, date missing, II-E-5 Rim die break II-E-4



Die Breaks (II-E)

Breaks in the surface of the die allow coin metal to squeeze into the resulting holes, causing raised irregular areas above the normal surface of the coin. Die chips and small die breaks are nearly as common as the die cracks, but major die breaks, which extend in from the edge of the coin, are quite rare on the larger coins.

If the broken piece of the die is retained, the resulting design will be above or below the level of the rest of the surface.



II-E-1 Die Chip (W), Rarity Level: 1-2 ......Values: 10 to $1
II-E-2 Small Die Break (W), Rarity Level: 1-3 ......Values: 10 to $2
II-E-3 Large Die Break (W), Rarity Level: 3-5 . ..... Values: $1 to $50 and up
II-E-4 Rim Die Break (W), Rarity Level: 2-3. .....Values: 25 cents to $5
II-E-5 Major Die Break (WE), Rarity Level: 3-6 . .....Values: $5 to $100 and up
II-E-6 Retained Broken Die (W), Rarity Level: 3-5 . .....Values: $1 to $10 and up
II-E-7 Retained Broken Center of the Die (W), Rarity Level: 6-7 ......Values: $100 up
II-E-8 Laminated Die (W), Rarity Level: 3-5 . ..... Values: 10 cents to $5
II-E-9 Chipped Chrome Plating (W), Rarity Level: 4-5 ......Values: $10 to $25 on proofs
II-E-10 Collar Break (W), Rarity Level: 4-6 ......Values: $5 to $25 and up
II-E-11 Broken Letter or Digit on an Edge Die (W), Rarity Level: 4-6. .....Values: Minimal
II-E-12 “Bar” Die Break (W), Rarity Level: 3-5. .....Values: 25 to $20
II-E-13 Hub Break (W), Rarity Level: 4-6. .....Values: 50 to $10 and up



BIE Varieties (II-F)

A series of small die breaks or die chips in the letters of “LIBERTY” mostly on the wheat-reverse Lincoln cent are actively collected. The name results from the resemblance to an “I” between the “B” and “E” on many of the dies, but they are found between all of the letters in different cases. Well over 1,500 dies are known and cataloged. Numerous more recent examples are known.

II-F-1 ILI Die Variety (W), Rarity Level: 4-5. ..... Values: 25 cents to $10
II-F-2 LII Die Variety (W), Rarity Level: 3-5. .....Values: 50 cents to $15
II-F-3 IIB Die Variety (W), Rarity Level: 3-5......Values: 50 cents to $15
II-F-4 BIE Die Variety (W), Rarity Level: 3-5 ......Values: $1 to $20
II-F-5 EIR Die Variety (W), Rarity Level: 3-5 . .....Values: 50 to $15
II-F-6 RIT Die Variety (W), Rarity Level: 4-5 .....Values: $2 to $25
II-F-7 TIY Die Variety (W), Rarity Level: 4-5 . .....Values: $5 to $30
II-F-8 TYI Die Variety (W), Rarity Level: 4-5 . .....Values: $2 to $25



Worn and Damaged Dies, Collars and Hubs (II-G)

Many dies are continued deliberately in service after they have been damaged, dented, clashed or show design transfer, since none of these classes actually affect anything but the appearance ofthe coin. The root cause is wear, but intent or mistakes may enter the picture.

II-G-1 Dented Die, Collar or Hub (IWE), Rarity Level: 3-5. .....Values: 25 to $5
II-G-2 Damaged Die, Collar or Hub (IWE), Rarity Level: 3-5 ......Values: 25 to $5
II-G-3 Worn Die, Collar or Hub (IWE), Rarity Level: 2-3 . .....Values: Extra Value to Minimal Value
II-G-4 Pitted or Rusted Die, Collar or Hub (IWE), Rarity Level: 3-4......Values: No Extra Value, marker only
II-G-5 Heavy Die Clash (IWE), Rarity Level: 4-5 ......Values: $1 to $10 and up
II-G-6 Heavy Collar Clash (IWE), Rarity Level: 3-4 ......Values: $1 to $5 and up
II-G-7 Heavy Design Transfer (IWE), Rarity Level: 3-4 ......Values: 10 cents to $1



Die Progressions (II-H)

The progression section consists of three classes. These are useful as cataloging tools for many different die varieties, but especially the die cracks and die breaks which may enlarge, lengthen or increase in number.

II-H-1 Progression (W), Rarity Level: 3-5 . .....Values: $1 up
II-H-2 Die Substitution (IW), Rarity Level: 2-4 ......Values: No Extra Value to Minimal Value
II-H-3 Die Repeat (I), Rarity Level: 2-4 . .....Values: No Extra Value to Minimal Value



Die Scratches, Polished and Abraded Dies (II-I)

This section consists of those classes having to do with the use of an abrasive in some form to intentionally polish proof dies, or repair the circulating die surface. Several classes which previously were referred to as “polished” now are listed as “abraded.”

II-I-1 Die Scratch (IW), Rarity Level: 1-2. .....Values: No Extra Value to 10 cents to 25 cents, as a marker
II-I-2 Polished (proof) Die (IW), Rarity Level: 1......Values: No Extra Value
II-I-3 Abraded (Circulation) Die (IW), Rarity Level: 1-2. .....Values: No Extra Value up to $10
II-I-4 Inside Abraded Die Doubling (IW), Rarity Level: 1-3 . .....Values: No Extra Value to $1
II-I-5 Outside Abraded Die Doubling (IW), Rarity Level: 1-3 . .....Values: No Extra Value to $1
II-I-6 Lathe Marks (IW), Rarity Level: 5-7 . .....Values: No Extra Value, marker only





More Resources:

• Subscribe to our Coin Price Guide, buy Coin BooksCoin Folders and join the NumisMaster VIP Program

2010 U.S. Coin Digest, The Complete Guide to Current Market Values, 8th ed.

State Quarters Deluxe Folder By Warmans

Standard Guide to Small-Size U.S. Paper Money, 1928 to Date

Strike It Rich with Pocket Change, 2nd Edition

 

 



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